Quantum computing is a science that focuses on the development and improvement of computer technology based on the principles of “quantum theory”. Quantum theory examines the behavior of energy and matter at the atomic and subatomic levels and shows that the laws of classical physics are not true at these levels. Computers that are used today and are called classical computers can only encode information in bits that accept the value of one or zero, which limits their capabilities.
But quantum computing from quantum bits or Qubit Uses. Thus, quantum computing harnesses the unique ability of subatomic particles, allowing them to be in more than one state (for example, in state one and zero simultaneously).
Key points about quantum computing
- Quantum computing is the science of how to use phenomena in quantum physics to perform processing in new and more efficient ways.
- Unlike classical computing, quantum computing consists of qubits instead of bits.
- Unlike a normal computer bit, which can only be zero or one, a qubit can be either one of these states or a combination of zero and one.
- The power of quantum computers increases exponentially with more qubits. This is in contrast to classical computers, where adding more transistors only linearly increases processing power.
The origin of quantum computing
Superposition and entanglement are two properties of quantum physics upon which quantum computers are built. These two features allow quantum computers to perform processing operations at much higher speeds than conventional computers and with much lower energy consumption.
Studies in the field of quantum computing began in the 1980s. During this period, it was discovered that some computational problems can be solved using quantum algorithms more efficiently than classical algorithms.
Applications of quantum computing
Quantum computing can be of great help in finance, military affairs, information technology, drug design and discovery, aerospace design, functional tools (nuclear fusion), polymer design, machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and digital manufacturing. be
Its potential and projected market size have attracted some of the most prominent technology companies to work on quantum computing, including IBM, Microsoft, Google, Intel, Nokia, Alibaba, HP, Toshiba, He mentioned Mitsubishi, NAC, Volkswagen, etc.
According to Garnett, 40% of the world’s largest technology companies plan to make initiatives around quantum computing by 2025.
Comparison of quantum computer and classical computer
Quantum computers process information in a different way. Classic computers use transistors that are either 1 or 0. Quantum computers use qubits, which can be either 1 or 0 at the same time.
The number of interconnected qubits exponentially increases the power of quantum computing. While connecting more transistors to each other increases the computing power only linearly.
Classical computers are best for everyday tasks and general public use, and quantum computers are great for running simulations and data analysis, such as complex chemical or pharmaceutical experiments.
Quantum computers must be kept in an extremely cold environment. It is also much more expensive and difficult to make them.
Classical computing advances by adding memory to increase speed. At the same time, quantum computers help solve more complex problems. While quantum computers may not be able to run Microsoft Word better or faster, they can run very complex problems faster.
For example, Google’s quantum computer, now in development, could help with many processes, such as speeding up machine learning (ML) training or helping to create more energy-efficient batteries.
Quantum computing has other applications, including secure information sharing. Other applications include fighting cancer and other health concerns such as cancer and developing new drugs. Also, quantum computers could help improve radars and their ability to detect things like missiles and planes. Other areas of application of quantum computing include the environment and keeping water clean with chemical sensors.
In 2019, Google proved that a quantum computer can solve a problem in minutes that would take a classical computer 10,000 years to solve.
A real world example of a quantum computer
Google is spending billions of dollars on its plan to build its own quantum computer by 2029. The company has opened a campus in California called Google AI to help it achieve its goal. Information technology news shows that Google has been investing in this technology for years.
So are other companies, such as Honeywell International (HON) and IBM (IBM). IBM expects to achieve major milestones in quantum computing in the coming years.
While some companies have built personal (albeit expensive) quantum computers, there is no commercial product yet, and there is interest in quantum computing and its technology, with JPMorgan Chase and Visa pursuing the technology. Once developed, Google could launch a quantum computing service through the cloud.
Companies can also access quantum technology without having to build a quantum computer. IBM plans to have a 1000 qubit quantum computer by 2023. Currently, IBM allows access to its machines if they are part of its quantum network. Those that are part of the network include research organizations, universities and laboratories
Microsoft will also offer companies access to quantum technology as a subset of its Azure data center platform. This is in contrast to Google, which does not sell access to its quantum computers.
Frequently asked questions about quantum computing
How to build a quantum computer?
Building a quantum computer takes a very long time and is horribly expensive. Google has been working on building a quantum computer for years and has spent billions of dollars on it. Google expects to have its quantum computer ready by 2029, although IBM hopes to have a 1,000-qubit quantum computer in place by the end of 2023 with the efforts of its experts.
How much does it cost to build a quantum computer?
Building quantum computers costs billions of dollars. However, a Chinese company called SpinQ plans to sell a $5,000 desktop quantum computer to schools and universities. Last year, it started selling a quantum computer for $50,000. However, the SpinQ machine, unlike large-scale quantum computers, can only process 2 qubits.
How fast is a quantum computer?
A quantum computer is many times faster than a classical computer and even a supercomputer. Google’s quantum computer, named Sycamore, is said to have performed a calculation in 200 seconds that would take one of the world’s fastest supercomputers, the IBM Summit, ten thousand years to solve. Of course, IBM denies this claim and says it takes 2.5 days (still more than a thousand times slower than Google’s quantum machine).
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